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Hẳn là các bạn Cảm Xúc khoẻ rộng nhiều giả dụ ngày tiết sinh sống đúng vị trí vào khung hình. Nhưng việc truyền huyết cũng đang cứu vãn sinh sống các mạng người mỗi ngày đấy. Bệnh viện cần tiết cho những người bị thương, cũng nlỗi đến bệnh nhân phẫu thuật tim, ghép ghnghiền các thứ trong ruột, điều trị ung tlỗi, cùng chữa các bệnh dịch không giống liên quan mang lại huyết, ví dụ như căn bệnh thiếu thốn ngày tiết hồng cầu hình liềm. Thực ra thì sống Hoa Kỳ, tưng năm có tầm khoảng 5 triệu con người được truyền máu.
A bit about blood
You"d probably feel a lot better if blood just stayed inside your toàn thân where it belongs. But blood transfusions save sầu lives every day. Hospitals need blood for people who are injured, as well as for patients having heart surgery, organ transplants, cancer treatments, & treatments for other diseases that affect the blood, like sickle cell anemia. In fact, about 5 million people each year in the United States get blood transfusions.
Blood is lượt thích the body"s transportation system, busy making deliveries & pickups. As blood circulates throughout the body toàn thân, it delivers oxygene and nutrients to all the places they"re needed. Blood also collects waste products, such as carbon dioxide, và carries them khổng lồ the organs responsible for making sure the wastes leave the body toàn thân.
Blood is a mixture of cells và liquid, và each component has a specific job:
* Red blood cells carry oxygene khổng lồ the body"s tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells 3D about 40% to 45% of a person"s blood và live sầu for 1trăng tròn days.
* White blood cells are part of the immune system, và its main defense against infection. White blood cells hóa trang less than 1% of a person"s blood.
* Platelets are cell fragments that help blood clot, which helps khổng lồ prsự kiện and control bleeding. They are about 5% of our blood.
* Plasma is a pale yellow liquid mixture of water, proteins, electrolytes, carbohydrates, cholesterol, hormones, và vitamins. About 55% of our blood is plasma.
The blood cells are made in the bone marrow, a spongy substance contained within many of the bones in the toàn thân. A full-grown adult has about 10 pints of blood (almost 5 liters) in his or her body.
What is a blood transfusion?
A transfusion is a relatively simple medical procedure that doctors use to lớn 3D for a loss of blood — or any part of the blood, such as red blood cells or platelets. Transfusions are usually given through an intravenous line, a tiny tube that is inserted inlớn a vein with a small needle. The whole procedure usually takes about 2 khổng lồ 4 hours, depending on how much blood is needed.
To avoid a life-threatening reaction, blood from a donor needs to match the blood type of the person receiving it. There are eight major blood types. They are:
* O positive (about 38% of the U.S. population has this type)
* O negative (about 7 % of the U.S. population)
* A positive sầu (about 34% of the U.S. population)
* A negative (about 6% of the U.S. population)
* B positive (about 9% of the U.S. population)
* B negative sầu (about 2% of the U.S. population)
* AB positive sầu (about 3% of the U.S. population)
* AB negative (only about 1% of the U.S. population)
In emergencies, there are certain exceptions lớn the rule that the donor"s blood type must match the recipient"s exactly: Blood type O negative is the only type of blood that people of all other blood types can receive sầu. This is helpful in emergency situations when the patient needs a transfusion but their blood type is unknown. Because of this, O negative donors are called "universal donors." People who have sầu type AB blood are called "universal recipients" because they can safely receive any type of blood.
A blood transfusion usually isn"t whole blood — it could be any one of the blood"s components. For example, some people with cancer need blood transfusions because during chemotherapy the bone marrow may be temporarily unable khổng lồ make new blood cells. For these people, a transfusion of red blood cells or platelets can help.
Other people might need plasma or only certain parts of plasma. For example, people who have hemophilia, a disease that affects their blood"s ability to clot, need plasma or the clotting factors contained in plasma to lớn help their blood clot & prsự kiện internal bleeding.
Where does the blood come from?
In the United States, the blood supply used for transfusions comes from people who volunteer to lớn donate their blood at local blood banks, at community centers during blood drives, or through the American Red Cross. Many people"s lives depkết thúc on others being willing to lớn donate blood.
When people know they are going to have sầu an operation that might include a blood transfusion, they may choose lớn receive sầu blood from one of several different places. Most patients choose lớn receive blood from volunteer blood donors. But some decide to lớn donate their own blood before the surgery. This is called autologous blood donation.
Another option for blood transfusions is called directed donation. This is when a family member or frikết thúc donates blood specifically lớn be used by a designated patient. For directed donation, the donor must have sầu a blood type that is compatible with the recipient"s. He or she must also meet all the requirements of a regular volunteer blood donor. There is no medical or scientific evidence that blood from directed donors is safer or better than blood from volunteer donors.
Who can donate blood?
To donate blood, the American Red Cross requires that people be at least 17 years old & weigh more than 110 pounds. (In some states, the age is 16 with a parent"s permission.) Donors must be in good health and will be screened for certain medical conditions, such as anemia. Donors who meet these requirements can give blood every 56 days.
People who meet the eligibility requirements will need lớn give sầu their medical history and pass a physical exam before donating. The medical history includes questions that help blood ngân hàng staff decide if there"s a risk that donors might have sầu an infection that could be transmitted in their blood.
Are There Any Risks?
A person can"t get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles và other equipment used are sterile and they"re used only on one person and then thrown away.
There are a few health risks associated with donating blood. Occasionally, donors may experience nausea, lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting, but these symptoms usually resolve quickly.
The donor"s toàn thân usually replaces the liquid part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4-8 weeks lớn regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets can help rebuild a donor"s red blood supply.
How safe is donated blood?
Some people worry about getting diseases from infected blood, but the United States has one of the safest blood supplies in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks và the federal government, work hard to lớn ensure that the blood supply is safe.
All blood donors must provide a thorough history, including recent travel, infections, medicines, and health problems. In addition, all blood donations are tested for several viruses, including HIV (the virut that causes AIDS), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, & West Nile virut. If any of these things are found, the blood is destroyed. Because blood can be infected with bacteria as well as viruses, certain blood components are tested for contamination with bacteria as well.
The U.S. Food và Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood centers must pass regular inspections in order khổng lồ continue their operations.
Do people get sichồng from transfusions?
Most people tolerate blood transfusions very well. But, like any medical procedure, there are some risks involved. These include the following:
* Fever. Patients can experience a fever with a blood transfusion, sometimes along with chills, a headabít, or nausea. These symptoms can be caused by a reaction between the recipient"s immune system & immune cells in the donor’s blood. When this happens, doctors will stop the transfusion and give sầu the patient fever-reducing medication. When the patient"s temperature is baông xã khổng lồ normal, the transfusion can usually continue.
* Allergic reaction. Allergic reactions lớn blood transfusions (like hives or itching) happen because of a reaction between the recipient"s immune system and proteins in the donated blood. In a few rare cases, an allergic reaction can be severe (a condition called anaphylaxis). Stopping the transfusion & giving the patient medications for allergy, including antihistamines và steroids, can treat these reactions. If the reaction is mild, the transfusion can start again. If it is more serious, doctors may have to take other measures before the patient can be given a transfusion again.
* Hemolytic reaction. The word hemolysis means the destruction of red blood cells. This reaction can be life threatening. It occurs when the patient"s blood và the donated blood bởi not match. When the types don"t match, the recipient"s immune system attacks the red blood cells in the donated blood & destroys them. If a hemolytic reaction occurs, doctors stop the transfusion & treat the symptoms. Hemolytic reaction is very rare, though, as health care professionals take many precautions khổng lồ confirm a patient"s and donor"s blood are compatible before giving a transfusion.
In almost every situation, the benefits of having a blood transfusion far outweigh the risks.
The Red Cross estimates that 15% of all blood donors in the United States are high school or college students. If you are eligible & wish khổng lồ donate blood, liên hệ your local blood bank or the American Red Cross for more information on what"s involved. You could save sầu someone"s life.